Hindenburg Design and Technology

Hindenburg’s Basic Design

The basic design of LZ-129 Hindenburg was conventional, and based on time-tested technology used by chief designer Ludwig Dürr and the Zeppelin Company for decades.  The ship was built with triangular duralumin girders (bright blue from protective lacquer) forming 15 main rings, connecting 36 longitudinal girders, with a triangular keel at the bottom of the hull, an axial corridor at the center of the ship, and a cruciform tail for strength.

Hindenburg profile, showing major elements, and numbering system for gas cells and frames. Drawing courtesy David Fowler. (click to enlarge)

Hindenburg profile, showing major elements and numbering system for gas cells and frames. Drawing courtesy David Fowler. (click to enlarge)

(Hindenburg’s main rings — also called frames — were numbered by their distance in meters from a reference point located roughly at the ship’s tail.  Hindenburg’s gas cells were numbered from 1 through 16, aft to forward.)

Hindenburg Main Ring 92 (at left), and Main Ring 33.5 (at right), showing sturdy, cruciform structure of the tail. Drawings courtesy David Fowler. (click all images to enlarge)

Hindenburg Main Ring 92 (at left), and Main Ring 33.5 (at right) showing sturdy, cruciform structure of the tail. Drawings courtesy David Fowler. (click all images to enlarge)

Hindenburg was originally designed to be operated with helium but the United States had a monopoly on the non-flammable gas, and the Helium Control Act of 1927 prohibited American export of helium to any foreign nation.

Hindenburg Flight Technology

For a discussion of LZ-129’s flight instruments and flight controls, visit the sections on Hindenburg’s Control Car and Hindenburg Flight Operations.

Hindenburg Technological Innovations

Hindenburg’s Size and Shape

One importance technological advance was the ship’s very shape and dimensions; although only about 30 feet longer than Graf Zeppelin, Hindenburg carried about twice the volume of lifting gas, due to its larger diameter and “fatter” profile.  Hindenburg’s thicker shape also gave it greater structural strength against bending stresses, as compared to the thinner profile of Graf Zeppelin.

The ability to build a ship with a much thicker profile was due to the construction of a new, larger shed at Friedrichshafen in 1929-1930 (see photograph below), which had been financed by the German national government and the State of Wurttemberg.

The construction sheds at Friedrichshafen. The older Factory Shed II, whose height limited the dimensions of Graf Zeppelin, is on the left, and the new, larger shed which allowed construction of Hindenburg is on the right.

The construction sheds at Friedrichshafen. The older Factory Shed II, whose height limited the dimensions of Graf Zeppelin, is on the left, and the new larger shed which allowed construction of Hindenburg is on the right.

The height of the previous construction shed had limited the dimensions of Graf Zeppelin (resulting in that ship’s thin profile and the very forward placement of Graf Zeppelin’s passenger gondola, to maximize use of the ship’s diameter).  The new shed allowed the construction of much larger airships, which could carry the greater volume of gas necessary to lift the payload required for profitable scheduled transatlantic passenger service.

Hindenburg’s Gas Cells

Hindenburg under construction, showing the axial catwalk passing through the center of a gas cell, and the outline of the passenger compartment at lower right.

Hindenburg under construction, showing the axial catwalk passing through the center of a gas cell, and the outline of the passenger compartment at lower right. (click to enlarge)

One innovation aboard Hindenburg was the use of a new material for the construction of the gas cells.  While gas cells for earlier German zeppelins were made of goldbeater’s skin (the outer membrane of cattle intestines) the cells aboard Hindenburg used a new material, similar to that used by the Americans, which was made by brushing layers of gelatine onto a sheet of cotton; this gelatine film was sandwiched between two layers of cotton to create the fabric for the cells.

Hindenburg’s gas cells had 14 manually-controlled maneuvering valves located just above the axial walkway, which could be operated from the main gas board in the control car; electric meters measured the fullness of each cell and could be monitored in the control car.  Hindenburg was also equipped with 14 automatic valves which released gas whenever cell pressure became too high, to avoid damage to the cells themselves or to the framework of the ship.

Hindenburg’s Engines

Hindenburg’s Daimler-Benz engines were also rather advanced, based on the MB-502 engine designed for German E-boats (high-speed motor torpedo boats) as part of the Nazi’s rearmament program.

16-cylinder Daimler Airship Engine

16-cylinder Daimler Airship Engine

Each of Hindenburg’s four LOF-6 (DB-602) 16-cylinder engines had an output of 1320 hp @ 1650 RPM (maximum power), and 900 hp @ 1480 RPM.

The normal cruise setting was 1350 RPM, generating approximately 850 hp, and this setting was usually not adjusted during an ocean crossing.  The engines were started with compressed air, and could be started, stopped, and reversed in flight.

Using 2:1 reduction gearing, each engine drove a 4-bladed, fixed-pitch, 19.7′ diameter metal-sheathed wooden propeller (created from two 2-bladed props fused together).

Hindenburg engine car. (Drawing courtesy David Fowler.)

Hindenburg engine car. (Drawing courtesy David Fowler.)

Interior of Hindenburg engine car, with Chief Engineer Rudolf Sauter (left) and Engineer Raphael Schädler (right)

Interior of Hindenburg engine car, with Chief Engineer Rudolf Sauter (left) and Engineer Raphael Schädler (right)

The engines were mounted in four engine cars; two at Ring 92, and two at Ring 140.  To protect the ship’s fabric covering, the engines which were angled slightly away away from the hull so that the their propeller wash would not directly strike the ship’s covering.  The rear engine cars were mounted lower on the hull than the forward cars, so that the propellers of the rear cars would operate in clean air, undisturbed by the propwash from the forward engines.   A mechanic was stationed in each engine car at all times to monitor the diesel and carry out engine orders transmitted from the control car.

There were plans, never implemented, to add a fifth engine car, containing a Daimler-Benz diesel adapted to burn hydrogen.  The proposed installation would have been an experiment to improve the ship’s economy and efficiency by burning hydrogen which would otherwise have been valved.  (Hindenburg valved between 1 and 1-1/2 million cubic feet of hydrogen on an average north Atlantic crossing.)


Mechanic entering an engine car

An innovative feature of the Hindenburg was the ship’s Anschutz “auto-pilot”, which used a gyroscopic compass to control the rudder and elevators, and keep the ship on its assigned course and altitude during cruise in stable weather.

Proposed Gas Preservation and Water Recovery Systems

But Hindenburg’s potentially most innovative features were never actually implemented.  Hindenburg was originally designed for helium, which was too difficult to obtain and too expensive to be vented to compensate for the weight of fuel burned during flight.  To avoid the need to valve helium, several innovative solutions were proposed.  One involved a set of inner hydrogen gas cells to be installed at center of 14 of the ship’s 16 helium cells.  The flammable hydrogen would be protected inside the larger cell containing inert helium, and when it was necessary to valve lifting gas, hydrogen, rather than helium, could be released.   When it became obvious that helium would not be made available by the Americans, and that the ship would be inflated with hydrogen, the inner cells were abandoned, but Hindenburg did retain the axial catwalk at the center of the ship that was installed to provide access to the valves for these inner cells.  The second proposed innovation involved a water recovery system which would have used silica gel to capture water from engine exhaust, obtaining water ballast to partly compensate for the fuel burned by the engines.  This system, too, was abandoned when the Zeppelin Company was unable to obtain helium and it became necessary to inflate Hindenburg with hydrogen.

Consideration was also given to installing engines which could burn hydrogen, but tests indicated that such engines had a much more limited power output; the maximum power that could be obtained was approximately 300 hp.  Plans were drawn to add a fifth engine gondola to compensate for the lower power of hydrogen-burning engines, but these plans were never implemented.

Proposed Launch and Recovery of Fixed-Wing Aircraft

One other innovation which was briefly attempted was a plan to recover and launch fixed-wing aircraft to speed the delivery of mail.  Test were conducted in which famed German ace and Luftwaffe official Ernst Udet attempted to hook an aircraft onto Hindenburg in flight, but these attempts were not sucessful, and no such system was developed before Hindenburg’s crash in May, 1937.

77 Comments on "Hindenburg Design and Technology"

  1. Has anyone (D. Fowler?) seen the German language compendium “Die Grosse Zeppeline”? It includes many fascinating excerpts from various books and journals written at the time, including an extensive excerpt from Dr. Dürr’s 1924 book and the impressive 1936 article by Herr W. E Dörr (not Dürr!) which was published in the Journal of the Association of German Engineers (Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure). This article included a whole host of data, photos, and drawings.

  2. Robert the Wallace | March 27, 2017 at 7:38 pm | Reply

    Can anyone direct me to any information: pamphlets, books or any written, concerning the next generation of German Airships–the ” Aces ” Class?
    The ones I was in brief told about were: LZ–133 { ” Werner Voss ” }, LZ–134 { ” Manfred Von Richthofen ” [ after the greatest WWI master of the airwars ], LZ–135 { ” Erich Lowenhardt ” }. I have forever, it seems, been Extremely fascinated with Zeppelin Airships ever since the greatest of them all: LZ–129 ” Hindenburg ”; so these newer ” Aces ” Class Zeppelins, truly fascinate my senses and imagination, for I understand these Airships were featured with an aircraft carrier style landing deck on the top of the fuselage! Thanks, for any info about written material on these Zeppelins. . .also, what is the best book about the late Great HUGO ECKENER? ?

  3. Graham J. Hudson, BA, (hons), Open | March 19, 2017 at 11:54 am | Reply

    Wonderful Site, I share my birth year with the Hindenberg, being born on the Monday after the XI Olympiad finished.
    1936 was the turning point of the 20th Century and the demise of this ‘Magnificent Flying Machine’ seems a prelude to a future of destruction and war.
    Reading through this comprehensive history of airships it makes one wonder why human initiative so often fails to recognise its own wonder of achievement.

  4. Hi Dan,

    I keep going back to pages that I have already read, and they are always a delight.

    It is not correct, I think, to say that each of the ship’s propellers was two two-bladed propellers ‘fused together’; it was a pair of two-bladed propellers (made by the firm of Heine) mounted one behind the other on the same hub. That explains why it was possible to carry a ‘spare propeller’ on board. It is also misleading to describe the propellers as ‘metal-sheathed’. Only the leading edges were sheathed – in brass sheet, I believe – and the sheathing was electrically bonded to the ship’s structure via slip-rings on the propeller shaft. And – I can’t remember whether you mention this anywhere – the ship’s cover in the vicinity of the propellers was backed by aluminium mesh, as a protection from ice thrown from the propellers.

    Best wishes.

  5. Robert the Wallace | December 7, 2015 at 8:25 pm | Reply

    Pardon me, I stand corrected, ” The HINDENBURG LZ–129 “, and the ” LZ–134 MANFRED VON RICHTHOFEN “!

  6. Robert the Wallace | December 7, 2015 at 8:14 pm | Reply

    My Love of GERMAN airships began, and Forever will be, with the ” LZ–127 Hindenburg! ! But I am intensely Fascinated with a passing passage I read concerning the next generation of GERMAN airships–the ‘ Aces ‘ Class: ” LZ–133, LZ–134, LZ–135, and LZ–132 “. Can anyone direct me to any written documentation about them? ? I had someone tell me that the LZ–134 Manfred von Richtofen { the Greatest GERMAN pilot of all time immemorial–IMHO }, had gone down over the Gulf Of Biscay September 1942. Please, any help on info about any and all of these very interesting airships would be greatly Appreciated. . .these airships I heard could land planes on them! Thanks! !

    • hi robert. enjoyed your comment. call me sometime. i am an avid airship researcher. been researching and collecting memorabilia for over 27 years.

      david cell: 704-254-0859

  7. Robert the Wallace | September 25, 2015 at 12:28 am | Reply

    My querie is two–fold. How long was the Graf Zeppelin II in operation before the Nazi regime broke her up. . .did any part of her survive? ?; and, I came across a site that stated, after the Graf Zeppelin II–the next generation of GERMAN Airships was the ” Aces ” Class, listing the: ” LZ–133 Werner Voss “, ” LZ–134 Manfred von Richthofen ” { yes, after the Greatest German pilot EVER ( IMHO ) }, and ” LZ–135 Erich Lowenhardt “! ! How authentic is this, and where can any additional info be found about these Zeppelins? ? I’d truly Love to know more about all of them: ” LZ–130, 133, 134, and 135—–THANKS!

    • LZ-130 was broken up in March and April, 1940. The nose cone is on display at the Zeppelin Museum in Friedrichshafen. Construction had begun on LZ-131 but no work was done on any other zeppelin. (Incidentally LZ-130 was named Graf Zeppelin, not Graf Zeppelin II.)

  8. …top skin being of course solar sheeting

  9. Upon seeing 1975 film ‘Hindenburg’ ignited my interest in lighter-than-air aircraft. I had an idea even back then of luxury cruise ship – an air cruise ship with al amenities — inclusive of small swimming pool (More like Jacuzzi) a small cinema, and computer room for internet.

    Most of all perhaps equipped with large control car with rear section for passengers for greater wrap-around observation. Many ideas arise with my idea. Only reason never became reality? Lack of funds! I am NOT Warren Buffet!

    Also with solar panels (along with battery accumulator system) on top skin of ship to power electric propulsion systems (instead of diesel, avgas, Blaugas, or the like). No fuel at all on board and with helium in gas cells, NO dangerous flammable substances whatsoever would be on board this ship! First airship equipped with fire-suppressant water fog system.

    (Just wish I had the money)

  10. George Timcke | June 27, 2014 at 11:00 am | Reply

    I imagine that the reason for the natural aluminium-colour of the ship’s structure in the film of 1975 was the belief that if the producers had portrayed it in its correct colour, the average viewer simply wouldn’t have believed it. Having done much research on the ship over the past four decades I was not surprised to find the reconstruction in Friedrichshafen coloured blue, just very pleased. I have been there twice so far and have had one flight on the Zeppelin NT. The company has had its ups and downs (sorry) during the last few years: can Dan give us an idea of how it stands today?

  11. Dennis Zermeno | June 24, 2014 at 8:33 pm | Reply

    I still believe that there is a potential for airship point to point travel. Imagine an airship large enough to transport upwards of 200 to 300 passengers. Establish scheduled flights between the San Francisco bay area and LA. Such an airship could fly round-trip in a single day. The scenic view flying over California would be spectacular. Thousands travel daily between the two regions by auto, bus, train and airplane. You would travel faster by airship than any mode of transportation except airplane. When you factor in the time spent going through airports the airport time really adds much more consumed time to airplane travel.
    Comfort, total relaxation, in-flight amenities, the view from 2,000 feet all favour the new modern era airship.
    In airship travel, the trip itself becomes a major experience for all to enjoy in total comfort.
    Yes, I know Airship Ventures tried and failed to succeed. However flying in a 250 foot blimp in a cramped cabin with 12 passengers with an outrageous boarding fee does not in anyway provide the same experience flying in a modern fully decked- out airship format. Such an airship would be complete with dining and cafe eating areas, large observation lounges and private observation roometts and meeting areas for those who chose such facilities.
    Just think of the experience. With the right fare-rate package and the best in amenities, I say the airship could once again return to the skies.

    • Have wondered about this myself. Such a ship would never replace conventional jet travel, but could play the role of an ocean liner of the air, if you will, only it could travel to places that actual ships cannot. No new ocean liners had been built until the Queen Mary 2 in 2003, and that was because of the popularity of the movie “Titanic” which popularized the romance of ocean travel. It was a risk for Cunard to build the ship, as many criticized whether people in this day and age would ride it. After all, if you need to cross the ocean, you get on a jet liner and do it in a matter of hours, not a week. And if you want to go on a ship for fun, you go on a cruise ship. No one is going to want to get on a ship that has a class structure and emphasizes intellectual and cultural pursuits. Or so the thinking went.

      However, the Queen Mary 2 has been successful. So maybe a similarly-minded zeppelin could be too. The problem with a zeppelin however I see is twofold:

      1) It could not carry near the passengers of an ocean liner, so would it be able to be profitably operated?

      2) It cannot offer near the range of activities as an ocean vessel. It’s primary attraction would be more for overland cruising I think.

  12. Sundar Narayan | February 1, 2014 at 8:52 am | Reply

    What an informative website! The technical information here is amazing and very useful.

    Do the design calculations for the Hindenburg (such as Arnstein’s structural calculations) still exist? Or did they get lost during the War?

  13. Thomas Vincente Cortellesi | March 5, 2013 at 5:37 pm | Reply

    This has been by far the most helpful resource on the Zeppelins and their Golden Age – most books don’t possess all of the information. I can’t thank the creators of this site enough, and for those airship fanatics like me, the Plantraco Nanoblimp is an ‘airship excursion’ enough. A small RC propeller that can attached to the side of any conventional party balloon. Just a recommendation, but you all should try it! (I can’t stop using mine…) I also have multiple airship propeller sound effects for those needing them for videos or just to listen to. Respond to me somewhere if you want them.

  14. Does the engines have serial number plates?
    Where can I find out more information on the actual serial number of each engine?

  15. Did the mechanics actually ride outside the ship in the engine car or were they in the ship and just went over as needed?

    Also, if the ship was flying around 70 + miles per hour how did items keep from getting sucked out of the observation windows when they were open? Did the fact that they were slanted have anything to do with that?

    • From what I’ve read the mechanics rode in the engine cars (in shifts of course). Even with ear mufflers the sound and feeling was described as “Being shot through an air rifle”. Eventually mechanics became so used to the sound of the engines that they would wake up in a cold sweat when one was turned off!

      There was an “air bubble” around the general area of the airship that the passenger stayed in (don’t know why).

  16. A great feat in air travell is is a pity that the Lakehurst disaster was the end of that form of air travel she sure was the QUEEN OF THE SKIES can you imagine if they continued what the next generation airships would have looked like and funtioned a mind boggling posablities

  17. Michael Snodgrass | December 23, 2011 at 10:52 pm | Reply

    Great site! I was wondering if david Fowler ever started his ZR-1 Shenandoah drawings like he indicates at his web site.

  18. I was wondering, how much cargo could the Hindenburg carry? I can’t seem to find the information anywhere. Also what was the fuel capacity and the weight of the entire structure. Thanks for the website, it has been a huge help otherwise.

    • I read somewhere that the hindenburg weighed 200 tons unloaded.

      • Kristen;

        This is a manifest of static loads from 31 March, 1936, when the LZ129 conducted her ninth flight from Germany to South America (source: The Golden Age of Great Passenger Airships – Graf Zeppelin / Hindenburg, by Harold G. Dick with Douglas H. Robinson):

        37 Passengers: 2,960 kg
        23 Engine Personnel: 1,840 kg
        21 Deck Force: 1,680 kg
        10 Steward Personnel: 800 kg
        Baggage for passengers: 600 kg
        Baggage for crew: 1,080 kg
        Provisions: 3,000 kg
        Freight: 1,269 kg
        Mail: 84 kg
        Fuel Oil: 55,230 kg
        Lubrication Oil: 4,000 kg
        Kerosene: NA
        Reserve Parts: 1,200 kg
        Reserve Radiator Water: 1,400 kg
        Drinking Water and Liquors: 1,150 kg
        Trim Ballast: 11,300 kg
        Emergency Ballast: 3,000 kg
        Miscellaneous: 1,120 kg
        Bedding, Utensiles, etc.: 2,500 kg
        Moisture: 1,000 kg
        Lightness: 1,000 kg
        SUB-TOTAL: 96,213 kg
        Dead Weight (approx.) 118,000 kg
        TOTAL: 214,213 kg
        Required Gas Volume: 202,000 cbm (metric measurement for cubic units of gas presumably)

        Freight constituded only 1,269 kg of a total load of 214, 000 kg.

  19. I am wondering if it was possible for the crew to get from the axial catwalk to the very top of the ship — i.e. the space between the top of the gas cells and the outer canopy. The drawings I have seen don’t show any access, but there must have been some way of repairing damage or doing routine inspections –on the ground, if not in flight.

    • There were vertical ladders between the cells by each vent at the top of the ship I believe at each of the 6 air ducts inside the hull that ventilated the lower portion of the ships hull to the topside. The ladders up to the topside of the ship were in the vent shafts. Watch the “Hindenburg” movie of the late 70’s which showed these shafts very well.

  20. I believe as hydrocarbon fuels become more expensive the airship will make a return. With todays advanced lightweight materials such as carbon fibre and titanium, and the availability of helium, airships can be made as safe as modern comercial airliners, if not safer.
    Automated systems using sensors and computer control to control attitude during landing would reduce the large number of groundstaff needed thereby increasing their commercial attractiveness, and the “carbon footprint” of a modern efficient airship would only be a fraction of a large jet airliner.
    I believe we will once again see airships gracing our skys, instead of the deafening roar of jets and helicopters.

    • i read that the hindenburg could go around the world 4 times and still use less fuel than a modern jet liner just taking off the runway

      • Jasonwallace | May 8, 2012 at 6:19 pm | Reply

        that seem’s a little far fetched surely?? yes the Hindenburg would use less fuel than a modern commercial passenger jet air liner but as for going 4 times!! around the world and using less fuel than a jet liner that’s taking off! i highly doubt that. But Airship’s are absolutely beautiful and i do hope that they will one again grace our sky’ as a major form of travel to any continent on the is awsome world of ours!! 🙂 have a nice day David

      • Um, no.

        The Hindenburg used roughly 410kg or 500l of fuel per 100 km. With 72 passengers that means 6.9l/100p*km, which is more than double of what a modern long range jet uses (Airbus A380 ca. 3l/100p*km). Even in absolute terms rather than per passenger, the 166 tons of fuel LZ129 would need once (not 4 times!) around the globe would carry a Boeing 787 more than halfway around the earth, whilst carrying more than three times the passengers.

        Unfortunately, this also means that even if you account for 80 years of engine efficiency improvements, I don’t think airships would ever become an economical alternative to airplanes for passenger transport ever again. Even airplane fuel costing as much as synthetically produced fuel, against an airship powered directly from “free” solar power (with solar panels on the hull), probably wouldn’t tip the balance because of the associated labour costs (not so much the flight crew itself, you could probably get that way down with modern technology, but the need for passenger care over a few days or even more than a week for long haul).

        Maybe there could be a market for a few air-“cruise ships”, but I doubt even that because of the lack of comfort and amenities compared to a surface cruise ship.

        • Andreas;

          Consider this performance characteristic recorded from the LZ129’s records;

          At a maximum speed of 82.7 mph, the LZ129 burned 1430 pounds per hour.
          At cruising speed of 78.3 mph, she burned 1166 pounds per hour.

          How many airliners can match that?

          The passenger per fuel used per 100 km is not a fair assessment of airships. A passenger train performs far better than an jet plane in terms of fuel used per passenger per 100 km. A 8 to 12 car commuter train carries upwards to 1000 persons in a 90 minute run of 100 km on long trips. How much fuel does that use in that given time / distance frame?

          The airship also has one unique feature an Airbus doesn’t. It doesn’t burn any fuel to hover in place with a forward velocity of zero.

    • victor.vasas | August 2, 2012 at 2:43 pm | Reply

      There is the issue of safety. Even when filled with helium, the airship is very sensitive to atmospheric turbulence, storms, sudden uplifts etc… The Hindenburg probably would have suffered an accident just from that cause sooner or later. I don’t believe that the risk of an accident on a long distance flight like crossing the ocean would be acceptble today.

      • The Hindenburg didn’t have a computerized network of data collated from satellite, doppler radar and continuous weather data from all over the world. That plus the capabilities to register in advance turbulence makes for safer heavier than air, as well as someday, lighter than air travel.

        Airships had to rely on weather date taken from passing ships on the surface of the ocean and whatever could be sent over the wireless via morse code. Long distance voice communication was still in it’s infancy in the late 30’s as was radar. The literally flew blind back then, relying on interpreted data from direct observations and gleaned from reports (when they could get them) from the surface.

      • Not an expert, but I believe your statement to be incorrect. The Germans flew their hydrogen-filled airships through thunder-and-lightning storms without a problem (one blew up, but that was due to venting hydrogen while in the storm, a mistake). If anything, it is winged aircraft that are prone to turbulence, storms, etc…

      • Considering that the Americans lost three helium powered airships to weather, the Shenandoah, the Akron, and the Macon, I’d say that Victor has the point here.

    • Availability of helium, helium is not as available as you might think, our greedy politicians sold off all the helium and now there is really not all that much left and what is left is a lot more expensive than it used to be.

  21. This site is fantastic! What a wealth of information and images! To me the shape and proportion of the Hindenburg(and Graf Zeppelin II) has always epitomized the height and beauty of airship design, but one thing that does surprise me is the shape of the rings in the LZ-129. I’d always assumed that they were almost perfectly circular in shape, but in the cross section you provide, they appear somewhat elliptical or “flattened” on top and bottom. Is this a distortion of the image or was it actually it’s true shape?

    • Just my general guessing, but I think the rings were a bit elliptical towards the center of the ship due to the keel and passenger decks. If you look at the cross sections above, the ring by the engine cars IS elliptical yet the one near the cruciform for the tail structure isn’t.

  22. Hi, i just want to say that I love this site, and find it very informative and interesting. I’m currently working on building a model of the hindenburg on my computer. Thanks to this site, I found a lot of information that has really helped me. I managed to find the site were the designs for the hindenburg on this site originally came from, with helped me get the models for the main rings down. however, most of the intermediate rings aren’t included, so I’m unable to create them. Do you have any suggestions for where I can find designs for all the rings?

  23. Great site! Thanks for all the great info.

    Maybe you could add that the duralumin girders were coated with blue enamel paint as anyone seems to think they were gray (probably because of the bw images) and people are surprised when they see the original reconstruction at the museum in Friedrichshafen.

    See here: http://www.zeppelin-museum.de/850.0.html

    Greetings from Hamburg

    • Very good comment, Jan. Thank you. Yes, the girders were originally bright blue from protective lacquer, and I will add that to this article. Thanks again!

  24. What an excellent site! I have to thank you, it is nice to find all the information I require in one location, and not only did that happen here, also the information was clear and concise, the facts well explained and supported, and the posted questions mirrored my own and were answered completely and thoroughly, as in the case of relative lift ratio of hydrogen vs helium the answer arrived in stages of increasing resolution, the question itself was reformed, added to, and in its altered state was less the question and more the answer than before, the transformation was interesting to observe as the precision of the answer was finally revealed. It reminded me that there is more to understanding a question than just having the answer, and the process revealed insight into why the answer was what it was, and I mention this because I felt the same way looking for the data I needed on this page, I felt the same process of revelation as I read, and have the answers I sought but more importantly the understanding of not just why they are what they are, I also feel I understand the background of the subject and events which occurred and is responsible for the existence of my questions, the answers, and
    this post. Again, thank you.

  25. Barry Hudson | July 4, 2010 at 11:30 pm | Reply

    Hi I have always had a interest in airships. I have a idea of using photovoltaic cloth, Lithium Ion batties and electric motors on a small one. just big enough to have famlily size living quarters.
    I guess I’d have to name it the Winobago-burg.. It would sure make a great retirement home with excelent travel potencial of seeing the county, from a birds eye view. and in grand style!

    I want all the techical spec’s I can get. I will have to develop a harpoon landing teather system. for mooring her in bad weather..But for right now I just want to learn all i can about them

  26. What are the calculations to achieve neutral bouyancy in order to reach a desired altitude

    • The rule of thumb for the hobbyist building RC airships (which I’ve found to a be a bit overly generous on ones that I’ve done) is 1 ft^3 of helium = 1 oz of lift.

      • Then a structural ridged air ship should achieve bouyancy with a complete evacuation of the air in it and have greater bouyancy than hydrogen. Thanks

        • No evacuated structure sufficiently strong to resist collapse can be built with any production materials. Not in ANY size.

  27. Nicolas Uribe | May 13, 2010 at 10:01 pm | Reply

    Great website! I’ve got a couple of questions that have been nagging me for years: 1) What method was used to generate the hydrogen? 2) How do you join cow intestines (normally used for making sausages) to make an impermeable gas bag for an airship? And just how many cows would you need for an airship the size of the Hindenburg? 3) I know that airships leaked hydrogen, but I assume that in a dirigible the gas cells would be kept as close as possible to ambient atmospheric pressure, hence leakage would be minimal. Am I correct??? And finally… thanks for sharing your website with all of us airship freaks.

  28. Dear Dan (or anyone else in the know),

    Was compressing the hydrogen on board ever considered as an alternative to venting it to reduce buoyancy? Or am I being technologically dim?

    Regards, MW.

    • It was discussed, but the power needed, plus the weight of compressors and storage tanks made it unfeasible.

  29. Another problem with the “Blaugas” was that it had been a highly unprofitable venture, because the components of the gas had to be shipped to South America by ship. There the propane and the other gases were filled into the gasbags and “mixed” by shaking (!) them, as Lehmann describes in his book “Im Luftschiff über Länder und Meere”.
    So the story that the “Blaugas” was a success is definitely a myth – besides the danger associated with it, as described in detail by Dan.


  30. Read book back in 1949 believe written by Max Pruss, the captain. In it he stated they filled all bags with Hydrogen and in the USA they had to fill the four bags over the smoking room with helium (our rules). His response was that the airship was more sluggish on the way back. You talk of the ballast dropped.
    Helium has only one half the lifting force of hydrogen so it seems the airship was originally calculated for hydrogen. or they could drag an American locomotive for ballast using hydrogen instead of helium

    • The Hindenburg was never inflated with any helium at all, since the DZR never obtained any helium from the United States; LZ-129 was inflated completely with hydrogen throughout the ship’s career.

      A helium airship is not more sluggish than one inflated with hydrogen, since as long as a ship is in static equilibrium it have essentially the same performance regardless of its lifting gas. (There would be a theoretical difference in mass, but it would be a relatively small percentage of overall mass.)

      With regard to the relative lifting ability of HE and H, while helium is half as light as hydrogen, it does not have half the lifting power. Helium has approximately twice the atomic weight of hydrogen but it has 93% of hydrogen’s lifting ability (not 50%) because lift is determined by the relative weight of lifting gas to air.

      I hope this is helpful!

      • Rajib Bandopadhyay | June 12, 2010 at 8:31 am | Reply

        The explanation could have been simpler.
        What Dan says is true, because Hydrogen has one proton, while Helium has two protons and two neutrons. Hydrogen has an atomic weight of 1.00794. Helium has an atomic weight of 4.002602. This makes Helium atom four times heavier than hydrogen atom. See wikipedia links:
        But hydrogen is never available in its atomic form. It is always in its molecular form. Which is why Helium gas is only twice as heavy as hydrogen gas.
        Density of Hydrogen is (0 °C, 101.325 kPa), 0.08988 g/L, whereas, Density of Helium is (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 0.1786 g/L, which means the ratio of density of hydrogen to that of helium is 0.50324748, or half. Inverted, the ratio of density of helium to that of hydrogen is 1.987093903, or two.
        If we compare density of either of the gases in relation to air, the density of air being same, helium must have the half the lifting power of hydrogen.

        • Rajib Bandopadhyay | June 12, 2010 at 12:00 pm | Reply

          The density of air at sea level is about 1.2 kg/m3 (1.2 g/L). Recall that Density of Hydrogen is (0 °C, 101.325 kPa), 0.08988 g/L, whereas, Density of Helium is (0 °C, 101.325 kPa) 0.1786 g/L. So, air is about 13.35 times as dense as hydrogen, and about 6.72 times as dense as helium.

          • A balloon with 1m3 of helium could lift 1.2kg – 0.1786kg = 1,0214kg

            A balloon with 1m3 of hydrogen could lift 1.2kg – 0.08988kg = 1.11012kg

            Thus using helium instead of hydrogen only reduces the lifting force by 8%.

  31. Apologies if you’ve dealt with this elsewhere, but why wasn’t blau gas used to fuel the Hindenburg if it was such a success for the Graf Zeppelin? Especially since the later ship had such a vastly increased gas capacity. Why use diesel and experiment with hydrogen burning motors when a solution to the buoyancy issue was right there?

    • The Hindenburg was originally designed to operate with Helium, and there would have been no point in using safe helium for lift while filling half the ship with flammable Blau gas, so Hindenburg was designed from the very beginning to use liquid fuel.

      But more importantly, if my description of the Graf Zeppelin left the impression that Blau gas was a safe solution the the weight compensation problem, that was my error; I apologize, and I will revise the Graf Zeppelin page to correct that misinformation. In fact, the use of Blau gas was quite hazardous, and many people believe Graf Zeppelin’s Blau gas presented a greater danger to safety than the ship’s hydrogen.

      The gas cells of the zeppelin era were not impermeable and always leaked to some extent even during normal operation; small tears and other very minor leaks were also common. Since Blau gas has a similar density to air, escaping Blau gas did not rise like hydrogen, but rather settled to the bottom of the hull, including the keel and the gondola itself, and could even flow out toward the engines. Settling Bau gas was an even bigger problem when the ship was on the ground, and especially inside an enclosed hangar, since there was no flow of air to carry the gas away.

      It should always be remembered that Graf Zeppelin was basically an experimental “proof of concept” design, and that the design of ship was limited by practical considerations such as the size of the construction shed at Friedrichshafen. While a clever response to these limitations in some ways, Blau gas had never before been used in a zeppelin, and it would never be used again.

      • Thanks Dan, that’s the first time I’ve read a clear explanation of why it didn’t catch on. Brilliant site – keep up the good work.

        • LUIS OTAVIO NASCIMENTO | December 9, 2014 at 2:43 pm | Reply

          At some extent, the Graff Zeppelin was a green flying machine, perhaps the first green one since Bau gas wasn`t dirt as diesel.

  32. I have 2 pieces of the girders. Is there anyway these pieces can be authenicated without pics? Type of aluminum, rivets, etc.

  33. i am trying to find out if the hindenburg flew off course around may of 1937? i witness an airship over Massena, new york around that time. I distinctly remember seeing a large swastika on the rear fin?

    • According to the discovery show, it took a detour over New York to wait for the weather to clear at the landing site.
      Look at this:

      • The video is not correct; Hindenburg passed over New York City before reaching Lakehurst, following its normal flight path. After reaching Lakehurst, the ship waited out the weather by flying over the New Jersey coast and Atlantic Ocean near the towns of Asbury Park/Toms River, and the ship did not return to New York City before attempting to land at Lakehurst.

        • dan, a correction is in order. the hindenburg did fly back to ny. there was a baseball game being played between the dodgers and pirates at Ebbetts field that afternoon. pitching for the dodgers was van lingle mungo from pageland,s.c. know his relatives well. this was documented and his name also appeared in a 50th anniversary newspaper, 1987. i have a copy of it in my memorabilia . i visited his uncle from pageland 2 weeks ago and all we discussed was van lingle mungo.

    • Alan David | May 6, 2011 at 3:59 pm | Reply

      Don’t forget that Hindenburg made a sightseeing trip over upstate New York trying to attract investors for Goodyear-Zeppelin in her first season.

  34. Thanks for the extremely detailed history of this magnificant airship!

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